Interview: Fatih ALTUNBAŞ, General Manager of Turaç

16 Ocak 2019
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“Having set out to make ground-breaking achievements, our next step after the production of the rifle cartridges will be to end Turkey’s external dependence on gunpowder and capsules.”

 

Turaç, a company that is often heard of in the Turkish defence and aerospace sector for its ground-breaking activities, has ushered in a number of new significant products in the past months. On May 29, 2018, the company received a production license from the Ministry of National Defence (MND) for 5.56×45, 7.62×39 and 7.62×51 mm rifle cartridges, thereby gaining recognition as the first private sector rifle cartridge manufacturer in Turkey. We had the opportunity to speak to Fatih Altunbaş, General Manager of Turaç, about the events leading up this development, as well as the gains brought about by the production capabilities that the company has acquired.

 

MSI TDR: Mr. Altunbaş, we first would like to ask you about the process that led to you obtaining the Production License from the MND concerning the production of rifle cartridges. What phases did you have to go through during this process?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: Actually, the process lasted far longer than we had anticipated. We made our initial application for the Production License in 2014, and had many official letters go back and forth in the ensuing process. Despite being an “indigenous” company with a “Facility Clearance Certificate” at a “NATO” level of confidentiality, and regardless of the fact that we had already obtained a production license for handgun cartridges, we were required to submit 12 to 13 dossiers-worth of documents, and our factory was visited numerous times. A process that we expected to last one or one-and-a-half years under normal circumstances dragged on for four years.

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Turaç offers a broad range of hunting shells.

 

The answer as to why this whole process took four years is linked, unfortunately, to the July 15, 2016 attempted coup that Turkey survived. Prior to this failed attempt, members of the Gulenist Terrorist Organisation had, in addition to all the other harm they inflicted on our country, done their best to block our efforts. Of course, we couldn’t figure this out at the time since we were painstakingly trying to resolve every problem cast in our way, running after documents. We had assumed this sluggishness was bureaucracy-related; but now we can better understand the origin of these obstacles. Despite the hold ups, we were able to complete this process and receive our license.

After we received our production license, people would say to us, “You went through a very difficult process to get this license; but having other people face similar challenges, will actually be to your advantage, commercially-speaking”. Regardless of all that we went through, we believe, however, that these processes should be simplified, as the interests of our country far outweigh our own, by a long shot.

 

All Tests Completed

MSI TDR: What stage has Turaç reached in the production of rifle cartridges?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: On August 2017, we started the trial production of all three calibres of cartridge. All functional tests and firing tests are now carried out in our own ballistic laboratory, and we’re currently in a position to launch serial production. In the meantime, we’re bringing, in relatively small numbers from around the world, weapons of different brands and types corresponding to these calibres. We’re doing so because one of the most important factors in the field of small arms ammunition is making sure that a certain calibre cartridge you produce can be fired properly, and performs the same every time with all weapons of the corresponding calibre. This should be achievable independently of when or where on this globe the weapon has been produced. In other words, parameters such as muzzle velocity, energy, pressure, combustion time of the gunpowder and flame length should all be standard.

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When you produce cartridges for the security forces of a given country, you more or less already know the weapons in its inventory. However, let’s say that these cartridges are being used at a firing range or in a shooting competition, where the diversity of weapons will increase tremendously. At this point, we don’t have the luxury of disliking certain weapons, so to speak. That’s why we’re constantly working to increase the diversity of weapons in our inventory.

 

First Domestic Purchase Order

MSI TDR: Have you received any orders from Turkey as yet?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: Indeed, we’ve signed our first domestic contract with the Presidency of Defence Industries (SSB) and the Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) concerning the procurement of 5.56×45 mm cartridges, but we don’t want to rush things to serial production. We prefer to move forward steadily and step-by-step, without making mistakes. We’re also in ongoing negotiations for other calibres.

 

MSI TDR: How should this production capability be interpreted from the standpoint of the Turkish defence and aerospace sector?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: In the Turkish defence and aerospace sector, we’ve our eyes set on attaining great heights. We’ve the TF-X project moving forward, and [Turkey is] among the partners in the F-35 programme. In addition to these, Turkey has its own UAVs and armed UAVs serving in the skies, around the clock, the successes of the ATAK helicopter is also well known, and the T625 indigenous helicopter took to the skies for the first time recently. Our land vehicles are being sold worldwide, while FNSS has, together with PT Pindad, developed a medium-weight class tank that will soon enter serial production. We’re truly proud with what these companies have done. But while our country and its defence sector has been busy surmounting the greatest of challenges and achieving the unachievable, it has somewhat neglected something that’s far closer and more widely used, namely small arms ammunition. Yes, the Mechanical and Chemical Industry Company (MKEK) is indeed capable of producing these cartridges, but its often insufficient production levels have led the military and police forces to resort to imports to meet their handgun and rifle cartridge needs. This was a blindness of sorts that had to be cured at the earliest opportunity. Accordingly, we launched production of a calibre of cartridges, and later added three more. This brings the number of different calibres we’re producing today to four.

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Turkey to Manufacture AK-47 Cartridges for the First Time

MSI TDR: What impact will Turaç’s gains have on such official domestic users as TAF and the TNP?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: From the standpoint of domestic users, the foremost impact will be the significant reduction in our country’s external dependence on cartridges. While Turkey already produces domestically a significant proportion of its 7.62×51 mm cartridge needs, most of its 5.56×45 mm cartridge needs and the entirety of its 7.62×39 mm cartridge requirements were met from abroad.

MKEK was able to produce 5.56×45 mm cartridges, but despite being within the range of its capabilities, it wasn’t asked to produce 7.62×39 mm cartridges for reasons that are wholly political. As you know, this is the calibre used by the Russian-made AK-47 assault rifle. Being a NATO member, and fearing that such a move might be misunderstood, Turkey vehemently avoided the production of cartridges for this weapon for many years, despite having 300,000 AK-47s in its inventory.

While Turkey imported 6 million of these cartridges annually in times of low need, imports rocketed to 100 million per year in 2015 with the launch of the Hendek Operation. This corresponds financially to a purchase of about $30 million, which is a considerable figure. We insisted in particular on the production of this type of cartridge, since there was significant demand in this regard from the MND and the Ministry of Interior. Similarly, the annual import of 5.56×45 mm cartridges also stands at around 30 million. We’ve therefore reduced Turkey’s external dependency in these two types of cartridges, while also becoming an alternative producer of 7.62×51 mm cartridges. From now on, our security forces will no longer need to worry about depleting their cartridge stores during intense operations.

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Turaç-made rifle cartridges, produced under its own Sterling brand.

 

MSI TDR: Given the significant business potential, were there no other domestic enterprises that wanted to engage themselves commercially in this sector?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: In Turkey, there are three organisations in total engaged in the production of small arms ammunition: The state-owned MKEK, which we’ve considered for many years to be our senior and doyen; a company in Balıkesir; and us. Many leading state officials have, of course, encouraged investors other than these three to enter this line of business, and to the best of my knowledge a total of 25 companies have, to date, officially applied for production licenses. But in the seven years since 2011, which was the year we launched our own processes/applications, none of these companies are left aside from the original three players. This is because in Turkey, the production of anything that contains explosives is very difficult and risky, and the profit margin is very low, considering all the risks you must undertake. This is a simple explanation of why no one has really wanted to invest in this area. Instead, everyone preferred a sector where things proceeded more easily and in which the returns were higher, namely the construction sector.

But we’re hearing good news these days, with state officials at every level saying that there is a brighter future ahead for industry and exports. Hearing this is both gladdening and motivating. We see that the path we’ve chosen is the right one.

Technical Characteristics of Ball Type Rifle Ammunition to be Produced by Turaç

Diameter (mm) Length (mm) Bullet Weight (g) Muzzle Velocity (m/s) Energy (joule) Some of the Rifles Produced in Turkey Chambered for the Relevant Cartridge
5.56 45 4 920 1,750 HK33, MPT-55, SAR 223 series and ZPT 556 series
7.62 39 7.9 720 2,000 AK-47
7.62 51 9.7 830 3,200 MPT-76, G3, ZPT 762

 

Target: 80 Percent Indigenousness

MSI TDR: At this point, the question that springs to mind is what your ratio of indigenousness will be. What can you tell us about this?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: I would like to answer your question by looking at the past. In 2013 when we first started producing 9×19 mm handgun ammunition, our ratio of indigenousness was in the environs of 20 percent; in other words, it was very low. However, by encouraging industrialists in Turkey, and by giving them purchase guarantees, we’ve created our own supplier network from scratch, and many of these companies have received production licenses thanks to us. At the same time, we’ve started to produce cartridge cases and bullets ourselves and to have them produced by our subsidiary industries, so now we’re only buying gunpowder and capsules from abroad. In the five years that have passed, we’ve brought our ratio of indigenousness to 80 percent, basically flipping the ratio of indigenous versus foreign components on its head.

Similarly, for rifle cartridges, our ratio of indigenousness will first start at fairly low levels, with the ratio of domestic input remaining at around 20 to 30 percent. But this won’t last long. Just as we’ve done before, we’ll offer the same opportunities to our subsidiary industries that we did before, this time for rifles in the form of purchase guarantees. The method we’ll follow is already set, and its results known to be positive. We’ll continue to grow as a team together with our subsidiary industries, and will achieve a ratio of indigenousness of around 80 percent within two or three years at the latest.

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Turaç began producing 9×19 mm Parabellum rounds in 2013 as Turkey’s first private sector small arms ammuniton manufacturer.

 

MSI TDR: One of the foremost topics on Turkey’s agenda is indigenous and national production. There is a common perception among the public that everything should be produced 100 percent with indigenous resources. What would you like to say about this?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: We can answer this question by looking at the example of car production. When you want to produce a car domestically from zero, you initially start working on assembly. You then start to work on making, for example, the tyres. You then move on to the wheel rim, chassis, electronics … and then one day you wake up, only to see that your car is now 100 percent indigenous. I think that the biggest mistake and self-defeating behaviour would be to avoid starting car production altogether, just because you’re not making cars that are 100 percent indigenous from the outset. In my childhood, although the F-16 fighter aircraft was manufactured in Turkey, there were criticisms that 90 percent of its components were imported, with only the assembly phase being carried out here. If, at the time, our leaders had said, “If we’re not making the majority of this aircraft ourselves, then we shouldn’t start making it at all”, then we wouldn’t be speaking today about the HÜRKUŞ, ATAK, T625, Armed UAV or TF-X. What is important is having Turkish workers and Turkish engineers work on these programs. You need to start from somewhere. That’s how we’ve always looked at things: Begin with a minimum ratio of domestic input, and later maximise this ratio. The same goes for ammunition. Even though we may start today with a relatively low level of indigenousness, we can gradually increase this ratio by indigenising other parts of the product in a stepwise fashion. And one day, lo and behold, the product becomes fully indigenous. As you are well aware, we’ve one long-term goal and objective: To offer an indigenously Turkish calibre to the world. But if we’re to come up with a Turkish calibre, we must first be able to produce the existing ones. What counts the most here is getting started.

 

We Encourage Every Interested Party to Become our Supplier

MSI TDR: What would like to say to industrialists reading these lines who may be interested in producing cartridge components?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: We encourage everyone and give them purchase guarantees. However, there is one thing I need to point out: This is a very difficult business. There have been many aspirants, and while very few have found success, in the end there were some that succeeded. We hope that these successful industrialists will achieve the same success with rifle cartridges. We’re not a company that tries to make everything on its own. In the end, we’re speaking of a domestic market valued at $6 billion, while the global market is probably in the trillions of dollars. In this regard, there is much more that needs to be done. We want to roll out our product by including our subsidiary industries in the processes in the most effective manner, and to focus on marketing this product in both domestic and foreign markets. This is one part of this business that we also greatly enjoy. We’re not afraid of seeing subsidiary industries companies grow and gain in strength, or become our competitors.

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The boxes seen on the shelves offer a clear indication of the diversity of Turaç’s product range. The uppermost shelves showcase both the company’s currently-produced cartridges and the munitions it is likely to produce in the near future.

 

Cartridge Case and Bullet already Indigenised; Next is Gunpowder and Capsule

MSI TDR: Is there any message you want to convey to state officials about indigenousness?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: Just as the power pack is Turkey’s Achilles’ heel when it comes to platforms, the Achilles’ heel in the field of ammunition has been gunpowder and capsules. Despite the fact that MKEK produces these two components, it hasn’t been able to satisfy its own requirements, forcing it to import part of its needs, just as we’re doing. This, of course, is hardly a desirable situation for us. As a solution, we first expect MKEK to increase their current production capacity, and we’re already in contact with them about this, having launched initiatives at the level of general directors. We hope that the outcomes of these contacts will be positive, and that Turkey’s external dependence for gunpowder and capsule will be alleviated.

We’re also doing our best and taking steps to correct this situation as soon as possible, although as you may appreciate, gunpowder and capsules require tremendous investments, as well as substantial know-how and technical knowledge. Furthermore, since they are very high-risk components, you also need to have the highest level of corporate memory and experience, so as to avoid any undesirable events that may lead to loss of life once you commence operations. That’s why, in our view, the first thing to do should be to operate our nation’s already existing facilities for gunpowder and capsules at maximum capacity. Should this still prove to be insufficient and we’re tasked with supporting this production, we can then step in, just as we’ve done with the 7.62×39 mm. We can enter the capsule business in the short-term, and the gunpowder business in the longer term, being ready to assume the production of these critical materials if need be, first and foremost for our nation’s benefit, and then for our own.

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Turaç Becomes One of TAF’s Main Suppliers

MSI TDR: Could you comment on the rifle cartridge production capabilities from Turaç’s standpoint? How did this new capability position you within the sector?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: In the past, Turaç was mainly a supplier to institutions affiliated with the Ministry of Interior, such as the TNP, but today, it has become one of the main ammunition suppliers to TAF. This is because the most commonly used cartridge in the TNP is the 9×19 mm handgun ammunition. In the coming period, we want to continue to be a domestic ammunition supplier to TAF, having already become a supplier to the police and gendarmerie.

 

Counting Down for the Export of the First Rifle Cartridge

MSI TDR: Are there any users abroad with which you are holding meetings? When will Turaç export its first rifle cartridge?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: I am certain that we’ll begin exporting these products in 2018, as we’ve already received foreign orders and have signed contracts. We’ll be in a position to make deliveries as soon as production is complete. We say with much confidence that this year we’ll definitely be exporting infantry cartridges, and that these sales will continue into the future. We’re a company that attaches real importance to exports. The total daily production of finished and semi-finished goods in our factory has already reached a level of between 800,000 and 1 million, and 40 to 45 percent of this production is exported abroad. Within a 10-year period, we’ve begun exports to 56 countries, and this number is set to rise even further. We’re increasing not only the number of countries we export to, but also the variety of products we export. In the meantime, the number of sales is also rising, which is why our export figures are constantly going up in terms of foreign currency. The new cartridges will, hopefully turn this rise into a leap. Under the current circumstances, what Turkey needs most is to bring foreign currency in through exports, and it is with this goal in mind that we work ardently, day and night, and participate in exhibitions around the world, working to introduce ourselves and our country.

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Having commended the production of 9×19 mm Luger FMJ-type handgun cartridges for the civilian market, Turaç began selling these products through the Mechanical and Chemical Industry Company (MKEK) in November.

 

MSI TDR: Will these products open new doors to you in terms of exports?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: In our sector, there is this notion that we call ammunition sets. What this means is that when users, whether domestic or foreign, launch an ammunition procurement tender, they generally prefer to purchase three different cartridge calibres in one go. For Western countries, these three calibres are the 9×19, 5.56×45 and 7.62×51 mm. In the past, we were only able to make 9×19 mm handgun cartridges, and so could participate in tenders only with this cartridge. Despite our handgun cartridge performing better and being more competitive price-wise than those of our competitors, we missed out on these tenders because we couldn’t make the other two calibres. The tenders of which I speak involved, for example, some 10 million handgun cartridges along with 500,000 rifle cartridges. In brief, we missed a business opportunity for 10 million cartridges just because we couldn’t produce 500,000 of another type of cartridge along with it. We started making handgun cartridges back in 2013, and facing the reality I mentioned in 2014, we decided that year to apply to make other cartridges. Today, we’ve reached a point at which we can readily submit offers for these types of tenders.

I think that compared to the past, we’ll now be four times more advantageous in these tenders. This is one of the points that will give us the impetus to make great leaps forward. There is also the subject of added value. The handgun cartridge is the part of this business that has less added value, and so provides less revenues. Rifle cartridges, on the other hand, are a far more valuable product. This is the second point that will energise our leap.

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Known for its ground-breaking activities in the field of small arms munitions, Turaç will become the first manufacturer of the 7.62×39 mm cartridges used in AK-47 assault rifles in Turkey.

 

MSI TDR: How are Turaç’s relations with our domestic rifle producers?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: These producers are, in fact, another trump card for our exports. The number of local producers is growing by the day. Right now, we’ve three different producers of the MPT-76, and other models are being developed by Sarsılmaz, TİSAŞ and GİRSAN. Companies that started out as handgun producers are now producing rifles as well, and I hope that we’ll be hearing news of exports from them soon enough. Having set off on our journey as a handgun cartridge producer, we’ve now moved on to the production of rifle cartridges. Together with these companies, I believe that we’ll attain with rifles and rifle cartridges the same level of success we’ve seen with handguns and handgun cartridges. Especially when the TAF-used, Turkish-made MPT-76s start to be exported, I think that this will increase the chance of sales of our own ammunition, since we’ll be producing the ammunition that gives the best performance with these weapons.

 

Next in Line Are the .45 ACP and 12.7×99 mm

MSI TDR: Your journey started with the production of hunting shells, continued with the production of handgun cartridges, and is, in this final stage, passing to the production of rifle cartridges. So what will be the next destination on this journey?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: We actually have a set of goals that we can describe as horizontal and vertical capability acquisition, or expansion. By horizontal expansion, we refer to the [new] calibres we have to produce in the field on handguns. The 9×19 mm is indeed the most common handgun calibre in the world; but there are also other calibres that Turkey is importing in substantial quantities. For example, every year, Turkey imports 10 million units of the .45 ACP cartridge. Then there are the 6.35, 7.65 and 9×17 mm, and the .38 and .357 calibre handgun cartridges. The total value of the .45 ACPs that Turkey imports is in the region of $4–4.5 million, and we plan in particular to launch this cartridge onto the market in 2019. Starting in 2019, we’ll be precluding the import of this ammunition. These are Turaç’s short-term plans for horizontal expansion in the upcoming period. Aside from this, we’re thinking about leaning towards larger calibres as a next step, and to produce the 12.7×99 mm heavy machine gun cartridge.

As I mentioned earlier, our objective in vertical expansion is the production of capsules and gunpowder. One of our short-term objectives in this regard is to bring an end to the dependence of Turkey and our company on capsules imported from abroad. As we acquire the capability to manufacture new cartridges, capsule manufacturing will become one of our priority topics.

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Turaç displayed its less-lethal munition solutions during the 1st International Military Radar and Border Security Summit held in Ankara on October 2–3.

 

MSI TDR: Given their military nature, rifle cartridges generally come in many subtypes. Which of these subtypes does Turaç plan to produce?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: The three rifle calibres we produce are the most widely used in the world, which is why we’ll be spending so much time on them. The 5.56×45 mm alone has about 10 different subtypes. In addition to the normal cartridges, known as ball type, the best-known subtypes are the blank, armour-piercing, incendiary and tracer cartridges. Among these, the ball type is the general purpose cartridge that is used as standard by nearly every army. In addition to these, you have the soft-tipped civilian cartridges and their derivatives that are mostly preferred for hunting. So if we consider the three different types of cartridge calibres and the diversity of their associated subtypes, you end up with a very broad range of products. Initially, we shall focus on two cartridge subtypes of each calibre: the ball type on the military side, and the soft-tipped cartridges on the civilian side. Immediately after these, we’ll complete tracer cartridges and armour-piercing cartridges, in other words, cartridges with steel cores. We’ll therefore prepare the main cartridge series for each one of the three principal calibres. Based on an established schedule that we coordinate together with the MND, we’ll finish all of these by 2021.

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MSI TDR: What kind of investments have you made to add rifle cartridges to your production line in addition to handgun cartridges?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: There are actually three aspects to consider here: Production capabilities, testing capabilities and capacity. At Turaç, we’ve invested in all of these areas. First of all, to acquire production capabilities, we’ve added new machinery to our machine park, and we’ve also expanded our laboratory testing capabilities so that we can perform every type of test on the products we produce. Since we know that these machines won’t be sufficient once we kick-start serial production, we have expanded our factory by investing in enclosed areas. We anticipate, following these investments, that this new capacity will also prove to be insufficient by early 2019, prompting us to make further investments. That’s why for the coming year we shall have to make new investments for all three of these calibres. We have of course already planned all of them, and we’re now just waiting for the necessary conditions to ripen.

 

MSI TDR: How will the investments you’ve made, or plan to make, contribute to new employment opportunities?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: What we’ve done so far has already made immense contributions in this respect. Last year at around these times, the number of workers employed at our factory was around 70. Right now, the number of blue-collar workers at our factory has climbed to 180, while the total number of workers has reached 250. The production of handgun cartridges has, to a certain extent, contributed to this rise. All in all, we’ve grown nearly two-and-a-half times. With all the rifle cartridge orders we’ve received, we’re working non-stop, day and night in three shifts, and with the investments we’ll make in the upcoming period, we anticipate that our workforce will need to increase to around 220.

 

MSI TDR: How will this new capability contribute to your production capacity and turnover?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: Our production capacity has actually increased. Last year we produced 150 million cartridges in total, and should we win the tenders in which we’ve participated, this number may reach 200 million towards the end of 2018. This increase will of course be reflected in our turnover. In addition, there have been tenders on which we had missed out due our inability to produce rifle cartridges. But from now on, these tenders will also contribute to the growth of our turnover.

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In the non-lethal munitions category, Turaç plans to launch production of 5.56×45 mm rubber bullets.

 

MSI TDR: Having been granted this latest license, Turaç has added rifle cartridges to a product range that already featured hunting shells and handgun cartridges. From Turaç’s standpoint, is there a particular balance or relationship between these three different product types?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: We started this whole process with hunting shells, without which we could never have moved on to the production of handgun cartridges; and had we not produced handgun cartridges, we could have never started making rifle cartridges. That’s how I can summarise the relationship between the three.

If we were to speak of balance… None of these three products would actually be able to stand on its own, since the demand for these products is highly fluctuating and dynamic in nature. First of all, the market is divided up into the internal and external customers, with 60 percent of our products going to the former and 40 percent to the latter. In addition, a proportion of our products goes to the civilian market, and some to official users. This means that the demand for these three products is substantially fluid. If we had chosen to offer a product for a single market or user, our production would have peaked when domestic demand rose, for example, but then plummeted when the demand decreased. This variability isn’t something the private sector can tolerate, and that’s why product diversity renders us stronger.

 

MSI TDR: Relative to your global competitors, how would you position the cartridges you plan to produce? What are your objectives in this regard?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: When we first started producing handgun cartridges, the level of quality of our products was similar to those being produced in the former Eastern Bloc countries. Today, however, the quality of our handgun cartridges is close to the highest levels, and their names are often mentioned alongside those of German, US and Italian manufacturers. We’ve covered significant distance since 2011 in terms of handgun cartridges, and I anticipate a similar process with rifle cartridges. I thus believe that we’ll be competing with the world leaders in this area within two or three years. We’ve always been a company that’s open to criticism and that enjoys developing itself. That’s why every product we make is bound to be better than the previous one. We shall put all of our efforts into making sure this happens.

 

MSI TDR: What is your target market share domestically?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: For 2018 and 2019, we envisage a market share of between 10 and 20 percent. But in the longer term, we think we’ll acquire a share of 30 percent, as is the case with our other products.

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MSI TDR: Is there anything you would like to add?

Fatih ALTUNBAŞ: On behalf of Turaç, I would like to speak about the contributions we’ve made to ammunition production in Turkey. One of the most important of these contributions was the opening of our laboratory and testing capabilities to the use of criminal investigators working under the police and gendarmerie forces. From time to time, they were finding themselves obliged to carry out certain critical tests abroad, and paying very large sums for the service. All of these tests can now be carried out in our laboratories, meaning considerable savings in costs. Harnessing these testing activities is, of course, beneficial for us as well, as it teaches us new things along the way, and we’ve conducted very positive activities with both the police and gendarmerie forces in this context.

 

On behalf of our readers, we would like to thank Fatih Altunbaş, General Manager of Turaç, for taking the time to answer our questions and for providing us with such valuable information.

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